5. Molecular Genetics II – VIDEO

5. Molecular Genetics II

(April 7, 2010) Robert Sapolsky continues his series on molecular genetics in which he discusses domains of mutation and various components of natural selection on a molecular level. He also further assesses gradualism and punctuated equilibrium models of evolution, integrating these theories into an interrelated model of development.

Stanford University

Stanford Department of Biology

Stanford University Channel on YouTube

Video Source
Video Keyword – molecular
Video Title – 5. Molecular Genetics II
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  1. more copies more you can play with them 49:00

  2. 1:00:00 taking on diabetes now

  3. video guy – ZOOM OUT for the foxes! come on!

  4. He breathes in the middle of sentences and run sentences together. It sounds like a tactic to stave off interruptions.

  5. Coursera.org 😀

    A poor man's enlightenment.

  6. I'm enjoying these lectures, I'm learning a great deal, and kudos to Stanford for making them free. But….geeze….it's been 30 years since college…my brain HURTS. Never let your brain get flabby, folks!

  7. I am far away from from molecular genetics as one only can be. Nevertheless, this guy is delivering his lectures in so damned interesting way, that I can't stop watching it. Thanks a lot to Stanford!!!

  8. Google for "silver fox evolution experiment". You will find some interesting videos.

  9. "from california to the new york islands" this land is your land reference???


  11. any evangelion fans in the house?

  12. You didn't get that is what the person meant: that the lecturer was Jewish in the sense of being from the group identified as Jews; not that he was of the religion Judaism? People frequently think a person is so smart he must be of Jewish ancestry. They are not saying it is by virtue of being of the religion Judaism.

  13. More correctly, Gould states that there is not one fossil record of any species gradually evolving into some other species, even though the fossils of new species do constantly appear and disappear in a fully developed form. As an atheist Marxist, he himself, not his opponents, proposed that new species must always evolve in the blink of an eye in geological time, so that the amount of fossils left were too few to ever find a sequence. Otherwise at least some would have been found.

  14. A more revealing undercurrent to the gradualist outrage is that Gould was seen as supplying ammunition to the enemy, the enemy being theists. One version of coming to terms with evolution that theists had developed was that God intervened at key times by moving evolution in a direction, ultimately including mankind. Gould lacked this antagonism toward theists. He sang in a church choir, for instance, even though a non-believer, because to him the music was exquisite.

  15. I'm so fucked up

  16. Its a shame that this only gets a fraction of views that rap videos get

  17. Bronchitis strike?

  18. he is rather wordy, no wonder the lectures are so long

  19. but wouldn't a gene code for the different promoter?

  20. I hope the guy with the camera dies in a fire. 

  21. Betty,  the video he is showing probably came from a BBC Horizon episode.  They put a lot of their filming from over 50 or so years into a series called The Secret Life of the Dog.

  22. Here is a page with videos from the Russian Fox breeding experiment:


    So you can see what he's talking about in the last 15 minutes.

  23. the fact that this is shared for free is absolutely amazing. thank you!

  24. These lectures are making me insomniac

  25. Really. You couldn't pan the camera up. Really?

  26. "If you are a sort of a modern molecular person, at some point or other you will have to sacrifise the goat at the altar of Barbara McClintock." These statements are immortal.


  28. 44:00 so your body doesn't eat your baby

  29. "Genes aren't all that, what's really important is the environmental regulation of these genes"

    – This crap. Okay, so a raccoon can become a human with a proper environment?

    If not, then what is this guy saying? Is he saying 100% of all differences between all individual humans are down to environmental effects? 90%? 80%?

    Or is he just saying that differences between big groups of humans (don't dare call them races) are 99.999% down to environment? Individuals can differ in the hard code, groups of individuals can differ, but if the groups correspond with the classical races, then the hard code cannot differ in anything but that which is labeled by people today as "unimportant", things like skin color.

    The silly thing is that epigenetic effects are ALREADY CAPTURED in old heritability estimates. They're just put in the bucket labeled "environmentality".

    It's interesting to learn about the mechanisms by which environmentality occurs, but this guy heavily implies that this mechanism increases the importance of environment above what was previously considered.

  30. Ah, this is the Zeitgeist guy. "The Genetics Myth". That explains much of the silliness of this presentation.

  31. It is not well established that Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory (the 42:40 mark in the video or so). There are some contexts in which glucocorticoids actually increase inflammation, specifically in the central nervous system. For a review of these context, read:

    Sorrells, S. F., Caso, J. R., Munhoz, C. D., & Sapolsky, R. M. (2009). The stressed CNS: when glucocorticoids aggravate inflammation. Neuron, 64(1), 33-39.

    Interestingly, Sapolsky is an author!

  32. Totally riveted by this series. Brilliant!
    (Why does he have so much hair on top of his head and his chin, but none around his eyes, ears, and neck? Are his high-waisted trousers conceiling a vestigial tail? Is the desk hiding cloven hooves? He's such a good teacher.)

  33. This is great, really enjoying these lectures.

  34. What a 'Lovely' man Robert seems to be! I really like intelligent people but I think being kind is better! In this good fair man we have both!

  35. I think he is wearing a Beatles' T-Shirt.

  36. 12:00 Vasopresin + promoter, social behavior, Monogomous v Polygamous bulls vs Divorce rate v Free Will. Yeah right, BS.
    Transcription Factors, next step evolution: regulation factors
    Barbara McClintock, transportable "jumping" genes corn, pathogen antibodies shuffle to defeat alien viruses
    steredoial glucocorticoids suppress immune responses, progestrerone, suppress good during pregnancy, autoimmune dis
    47:00 new area: Copy Number Variant, Chicago rats evolution past 200 yrs, diabetes resistance by region / food factors,
    Samoans on USA Hershey diet dead now in 100 yrs. Selecting for Samoans with lesser dietary metabolism.
    Tame foxes within 35 generations…bread for a Behavioral Trait. (Still this doesn't disprove free will, later on…)
    So he disproved the dogmatic Paleontologist fanatics? Seems so.

    recommended docu: Nazi Medicine:
    Charles Davenport, USA Eugenics 1904…atheistic social Darwinism consequence, genocide, idiots, ECONOMIC pressures
    funded by Mary Harriman (railroad widow) + Carnegie Foundation 'Heredity in Relation to Eugenics' vs Immigration, KKK
    Germans emulated USA, 1934 'Tomorrow's Children' movie
    USA Rockefeller Foundation funded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology in Germany, Eugenics
    1938 Harry Laughlin, Cold Spring Harbor Labs, 'Erb Frank' 'Genetically Diseased' Nazi film promoted to USA schools, churches, clubs, Lynchburg, VA 7500+ sterelized, Germany passes sterelization law, USA applauds
    I.G. Farben experiments (co owned by Max / Paul Warburg brothers, amazingly, financiers of both sides)
    Hitler's 1939 letter to Dr. Karl Brandt, merciful Euthanasia deaths (50,000+) to free resources for Land Enrichment program
    Dr. Gehrard Wagner 1935 developed Plan, Hadamar, Hardheim, Sonnenstein starved "useless eaters" kids to death
    Nurses' excuses: "doing our jobs, not our fault, we were apolitical" (typical atheist excuse today)

    Neuengamme, Dr. Heissmeyer's Tuberculosis study, removed 20 kids' lymph glands, executed survivors 1945 cover-up
    Dr. Mengele's Twin experiments Auschwitz
    Dr. Hans Munsch, gassing
    23 Doctors, Karl Brandt, Nurenburg trials, watershed on Crimes vs Humanity, Medical Ethics…apply to Stem Cell murderers
    & abortionists
    Economics BS by these atheistic Darwinian ideologues (USA, Germany, worldwide): "some lives are useless and costly"
    ( both Marxian and Adam Smith limited-resource economics indicted)

  37. i think there is a gene for wanting to have his head tattooed to your body

  38. Barbara McClintock, brilliant scientist, not a very good writer.. Sounds a lot like Central Auditory Processing Disorder, the auditory dysfunction makes it difficult to spell and read phonetically, and adds difficulty to listening, making someone more disconnected emotionally from people, to put it in a general way. CAPD is considered a learning disability that doesn't effect intelligence.

  39. I took genetics in 1969 as a psychology undergraduate. The professor was emphatic about the Central Dogma. It was a new idea at the time. I remember Sister Fidelis in the fourth grade also preaching dogma – in this case about the Trinity.

    I resisted both.

  40. Eyes separately evolved at least three times.
    You can see variably receptive eyes in mollusks, from dark/light to extremely useful squid and octopus eyes.

    Catastrophism was a word used in geology, which certainly affects punctuation of evolution – 6 great extinctions, with many.
    lesser ones some coming close to those arbitrarily defined 6.

    Continuing a bottleneck causes some trends, like homozygosity, to end up in extinction. Humans right now are extending bottlenecks in large carnivores, through direct persecution as well as through habitat destruction.

  41. prof. Sapolsky may be incorrect in teaching that the second position in groupings of 3 amino acids in DNA coding sequences can often be changed (a SNP) without adverse consequence. All other courses I have encountered teach that this true of third position. What a brain! What a course! Remarkable!

  42. 43.49 So that your body does not eat the baby by lowering down the immune system hahaha =X love these videos so far

  43. Is Robert Sapolsky cleverer than me?!

  44. Just one thing I don't understand, –  EVERYTHING!          Mike Fuller   Poetry and Music Fan. Very Amateur Artist.

  45. This lecture is so tasty that I'd like to eat it!

  46. this is spectacular

  47. Really great series by Professor Robert Sapolsky.

  48. voici l'image du renard que nous n'avons pu voir lors de son exposé.

  49. watching this in 2017 on youtube, i'm still wondering about the midterm

  50. A later lecture argues that schizophrenia may be an auto-immune disease. I know of a case where the symptoms of this disease slowly lapsed during pregnancy but quickly returned after birth. I wonder if there are studies of this phenomenon?

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